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Student Centre Social Psychology
First Canadian Edition
Myers/Spencer

Student Centre

Chapter 2: The Self in a Social World

| Chapter Objectives | Multiple Choice Quiz | True/False Quiz | Key Terms and Glossary | Chapter Outline | Weblinks | Presentation Slides | Image Bank | Crossword Puzzle |


    Multiple Choice Quiz

    2-1. Our perceiving ourselves as athletic, overweight, smart, or shy constitutes our
    a. egocentric beliefs
    b. interdependent self
    c. self-schemas
    d. self-references
    2-2. According to Hazel Markus and her colleagues, our "possible selves".
    a. include our vision of the self we dream of becoming and the self we fear becoming
    b. include only our vision of the self we hope we will become
    c. are the specific self-schemas that determine our self-esteem
    d. are the ideal images that close friends and relatives have of us
    2-3. The tendency to process efficiently and remember well information related to oneself is called the __________________ effect.
    a. self-aggrandizing
    b. self-schematizing
    c. self-processing
    d. self-reference
    2-4. Self-esteem refers to
    a. the sum total of our possible selves
    b. our overall self-evaluation
    c. the sum total of all our thoughts about ourselves
    d. our most central self-schemas
    2-5. When people are asked whether they would comply with demands to deliver cruel shocks or would be hesitant to help a victim if several other people were present,
    a. they overwhelmingly deny their vulnerability to such influences
    b. they admit they might be influenced but in their actual behavior are not
    c. males deny they would be influenced, but females admit they would be
    d. they accurately predict their future behavior on such significant matters
    2-6. Research has indicated that when people are asked to record their daily mood and the factors that might influence it,
    a. there is little relationship between their perception of how important a factor was and how well the factor predicted their moods
    b. females have better insight into what affects their moods than do males
    c. people have much better insight into what influences their own moods than what influences the mood of a friend
    d. adults have better insight into what affects their moods than do children
    2-7. Timothy Wilson suggests that the mental processes that ______________ our social behavior are distinct from the mental processes through which we __________________ our behavior.
    a. control; explain
    b. evaluate; inhibit
    c. produce; control
    d. form; change
    2-8. In nine experiments, Timothy Wilson and his colleagues found that people's expressed attitudes predicted their later behavior reasonably well unless
    a. their attitudes were inconsistent with social norms
    b. the experimenter had them under surveillance
    c. they were asked to rationally analyze their feelings before indicating their attitudes
    d. they had little opportunity to reflect on their feelings before indicating their attitudes
    2-9. According to the text, research on self-knowledge suggests that
    a. people tend to underestimate their own abilities
    b. people who have an interdependent self show less self-insight than those with an independent self
    c. people are highly accurate in predicting their own future behavior
    d. people's self-reports are often untrustworthy
    2-10. In comparison to people in Western cultures, people in Asian cultures are more likely to demonstrate
    a. learned helplessness
    b. self-handicapping
    c. self-serving bias
    d. an interdependent self
    2-11. What motto best represents societies that nurture an independent self?
    a. No one is an island
    b. Birds of a feather flock together
    c. To thine own self be true
    d. One who hesitates is lost
    2-12. An internal locus of control is to ___________________________ as unrealistic optimism is to ___________________________.
    a. self-presentation; self-serving bias
    b. self-serving bias; fundamental attribution error
    c. self-efficacy; self-serving bias
    d. self-handicapping; self-efficacy
    2-13. Bandura is to ________________________ as Rotter is to ______________________.
    a. learned helplessness; self-serving bias
    b. interdependent self; independent self
    c. self-efficacy; locus of control
    d. self-serving bias; fundamental attribution error
    2-14. People who believe themselves internally controlled are more likely to
    a. take unnecessary risks
    b. engage in self-handicapping
    c. be tolerant of racial differences
    d. do well in school
    2-15. Dogs who learn a sense of helplessness by being taught they cannot escape shocks
    a. tend to band together and as a group demonstrate collective efficacy
    b. tend to become highly aggressive in other situations
    c. more readily take the initiative to escape punishment when that becomes possible
    d. later fail to take the initiative in another situation when they can escape punishment
    2-16. The fact that students tend to have a higher academic self-concept if they attend a school with few exceptionally capable students is best explained in terms of
    a. locus of control
    b. self-handicapping
    c. social comparison
    d. self-monitoring
    2-17. Research findings challenge the notion that
    a. most people suffer from unrealistically low self-esteem
    b. we tend to blame others for their own misfortune
    c. we strive to protect and enhance our self-esteem
    d. true humility consists of self-forgetfulness
    2-18. Charles H. Cooley's concept of the "looking-glass self" recognizes that our self-concept is shaped by
    a. the roles we play
    b. social comparison
    c. success and failure experiences
    d. other people's judgments
    2-19. University students perceive themselves as far more likely than their classmates to ___________________________ and as far less likely to ___________________________.
    a. draw a good salary; develop a drinking problem
    b. obtain a divorce; own a home
    c. travel to Europe; be happy in their work
    d. become a mental patient; have close friendships
    2-20. We tend to ___________________________ the commonality of our unsuccessful behaviors and ___________________________ the commonality of our successful behaviors.
    a. overestimate; underestimate
    b. underestimate; overestimate
    c. underestimate; underestimate
    d. overestimate; overestimate
    2-21. Unrealistic optimism, false consensus, and false uniqueness all reflect the human tendency toward
    a. self-forgetfulness
    b. self-serving bias
    c. self-efficacy
    d. self-handicapping
    2-22. Research on self-perception indicates that if we find ourselves linked (say born on the same day as) to some reprehensible person
    a. we show a temporary loss of self-esteem
    b. we form a more independent self
    c. we form a harsher view of the person
    d. we soften our view of the person
    2-23. Abraham Tesser has argued that a " _______________" motive is important in helping us understand friction among brothers and sisters who share similar abilities.
    a. cognitive dissonance
    b. self-esteem maintenance
    c. self-forgetfulness
    d. social approval maintenance
    2-24. High self-esteem goes hand in hand with
    a. self-serving perceptions
    b. self-monitoring
    c. an independent self
    d. a tendency to berate others
    2-25. According to "terror management theory," positive self-esteem protects us from feeling anxiety over
    a. social rejection
    b. our own death
    c. public speaking
    d. failing to achieve an important goal
    2-26. Those who do not exhibit self-serving bias may tend toward
    a. better than average mental health
    b. schizophrenia
    c. above average intelligence
    d. depression
    2-27. Self-presentation, self-handicapping, and self-monitoring all reflect human efforts at
    a. self-efficacy
    b. self-understanding
    c. collective efficacy
    d. impression management
    2-28. In contrast to those with an independent self-concept, those with an interdependent self-concept are most likely to disapprove of
    a. nationalism
    b. risk-taking
    c. conformity
    d. egotism
    2-29. The self-handicapping strategy enables us to
    a. accept greater responsibility for our failures
    b. avoid the fundamental attribution error
    c. take greater credit for our successes
    d. circumvent the ill effects of the Peter Principle
    2-30. Students are more likely to rate themselves as superior in ___________ than in ___________
    a. moral goodness; intelligence
    b. being punctual; being disciplined
    c. creativity; honesty
    d. contributing money to the poor; caring for the poor
    2-31. Being attuned to the way one presents oneself in social situations and adjusting one's performance to create the desired impression is called
    a. self-handicapping
    b. self-monitoring
    c. egocentric role-playing
    d. manipulative social adjustment
    2-32. In completing the statement, "I am...." Michelle responds by stating that she is the youngest in her family, belongs to a sorority, and is a member of the community orchestra. Michelle's statements most clearly reflect
    a. her possible selves
    b. an interdependent self
    c. a self-serving bias
    d. a strong self-monitoring tendency
    2-33. Because she gets poor grades no matter how hard she studies, Milly has decided not to study at all. Milly's behavior most clearly demonstrates
    a. self-serving bias
    b. unrealistic optimism
    c. learned helplessness
    d. a self-monitoring tendency
    2-34. Individualism is to ______________ as collectivism is to _______________.
    a. North American cultures; western European cultures
    b. industrialized Western cultures; Asian cultures
    c. third world cultures; Asian cultures
    d. Mexico; Canada
    2-35. Betsy never plans ahead because she believes that the way things turn out is merely a matter of chance. Betsy's thinking most clearly illustrates
    a. the false uniqueness bias
    b. an external locus of control
    c. self-handicapping
    d. self-efficacy
    2-36. Judging from the discussion of self-image in the text, people are least likely to see themselves as above average in
    a. leadership ability
    b. tolerance
    c. weight
    d. helpfulness
    2-37. Although Jeff frequently exceeds the speed limit by at least 10 kilometers per hour, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other drivers do the same. His mistaken belief best illustrates
    a. learned helplessness
    b. false consensus
    c. self-monitoring
    d. an interdependent self
    2-38. Those who evade paying income tax but who give generously to charity will probably _______________ the number of others who evade taxes and ________________ the number of others who give generously to charity.
    a. overestimate; overestimate
    b. underestimate; overestimate
    c. overestimate; underestimate
    d. underestimate; underestimate
    2-39. Tomorrow morning Harry Smith has an interview which will determine whether he will be accepted into medical school. Rather than getting a good night's sleep, he is going to an all-night party with his friends. From the material presented in the text, which of the following may best describe Harry's behavior?
    a. Harry unconsciously hopes he is not accepted into medical school
    b. Harry is making the fundamental attribution error
    c. Harry is engaging in self-handicapping
    d. Harry shares with his friends a sense of collective efficacy
    2-40. People are more modest when
    a. self-evaluations are made public rather than anonymously.
    b. they have a strong sense of self-efficacy
    c. they present themselves to others they regard as inferior
    d. they present themselves to members of their own family


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