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Student Centre Psychology, First Canadian Edition
First Canadian Edition
John Santrock and John Mitterer

Student Centre

Chapter 7: Memory

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    Practice Test

    7-1. Which of the following is the correct definition of memory?

        a. the retention of information over time
        b. the retention of time through conditioning
        c. the conditioning of thoughts via observation
        d. the neural processing of subconscious material

    7-2. The encoding of memory refers to how information is

        a. retained.
        b. retrieved.
        c. placed into memory.
        d. all of the above

    7-3. Storage is the memory process primarily concerned with

        a. getting information into memory.
        b. retaining information over time.
        c. taking information out of storage.
        d. registering information with our senses.

    7-4. Which of the following is not a disadvantage of rehearsal?

        a. It doesn't help with retaining information for the long term.
        b. It doesn't connect meaning to the information.
        c. It doesn't help with remembering information for a brief time.
        d. It doesn't process information at a deeper level.

    7-5. Thinking of examples of a concept is a good way to help yourself understand the concept. This approach is referred to as

        a. deep processing.
        b. storage.
        c. imagery.
        d. elaboration.

    7-6. A teacher who wants to help students with long-term retention should present information in which manner?

        a. organized randomly
        b. without any specific order
        c. organized alphabetically
        d. organized logically or hierarchically

    7-7. The capacity of working memory can be expanded by grouping information into higher-order units. This technique is called

        a. rehearsal.
        b. eidetic imagery.
        c. chunking.
        d. the phonological loop.

    7-8. Which memory system can retain information in its original form for only an instant?

        a. sensory memory
        b. working memory
        c. long-term memory
        d. short-term memory

    7-9. According to the Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, the best way to move information into long-term memory is to

        a. rehearse the information and keep it in short-term memory as long as possible.
        b. move the information directly from sensory memory into long-term memory.
        c. rehearse the information in sensory memory as long as possible.
        d. move complex information directly to long-term memory.

    7-10. Which of the following statements about sensory memory is incorrect?

        a. Information does not stay in sensory memory for very long.
        b. Sensory memory processes more information than we may realize.
        c. Sensory memory retains information from our senses.
        d. Information in sensory memory is resistant to decay.

    7-11. Visual images that are stored in the sensory registers are called ________ memory.

        a. iconic
        b. echoic
        c. semantic
        d. nondeclarative

    7-12. Auditory information that is stored in the sensory memory is referred to as

        a. iconic memory.
        b. echoic memory.
        c. nondeclarative memory.
        d. memory span.

    7-13. You are reading a book, and your friend Rachel asks you a question. By the time you say, "Sorry, what did you say?" you "hear" her question in your head. This is due to

        a. echoic memory.
        b. long-term sensory memory.
        c. working memory.
        d. iconic memory.

    7-14. You have just looked up a phone number in a phone book. Which of the following strategies would be the most effective for remembering this phone number longer than 30 seconds?

        a. transferring the phone number to short-term memory
        b. processing the phone number in sensory memory
        c. thinking of as many phone numbers as possible
        d. rehearsing the phone number

    7-15. Which of the following can store information for up to 30 seconds?

        a. sensory memory
        b. working memory
        c. long-term memory
        d. iconic memory

    7-16. The storage capacity of working memory is ________ units of information.

        a. 12
        b. 7±2
        c. 2.8 x 1020
        d. .45

    7-17. Declarative memory is subdivided into

        a. procedural and virtual memory.
        b. episodic and semantic memory.
        c. echoic and iconic memory.
        d. automatic and deliberate memory.

    7-18. Early network theories of memory were primarily criticized for

        a. underestimating the complexity of human memory.
        b. being too abstract.
        c. including too many hierarchical levels.
        d. focusing exclusively on semantic memory.

    7-19. Which of the following theories are most consistent with reconstructive memory?

        a. network theories
        b. schema theories
        c. script theories
        d. none of the above

    7-20. Experiments with sea slugs led to the speculation that memories are related to activity of

        a. the hippocampus.
        b. the amygdala.
        c. brain chemicals.
        d. the cell nucleus.

    7-21. Your brother gives you a list of items he wants you to pick up at the grocery store on your way home from work. You glanced over the list during your lunch hour but inadvertently left the list on your desk when you left work. When you get to the grocery store, which items on the list are you most likely to remember?

        a. the items at the beginning of the list
        b. the items at the end of the list
        c. the items in the middle of the list
        d. the items at the beginning and end of the list

    7-22. The typical serial position effect pattern shows which of the following?

        a. stronger recency effect than primacy effect
        b. stronger primacy effect than recency effect
        c. equal strength for primacy effect and recency effect
        d. weaker recency effect than primacy effect

    7-23. Essay questions measure which type of memory?

        a. recognition
        b. recall
        c. serial position
        d. none of the above

    7-24. An essay examination is to recall as a multiple-choice test is to

        a. recognition.
        b. reconstruction.
        c. reorganization.
        d. restructuring.

    7-25. According to (the) ________, associations formed at the time of encoding tend to be effective retrieval cues.

        a. recall
        b. serial position effect
        c. PQ4R
        d. encoding specificity principle

    7-26. When people are in a sad mood, they are more likely to remember negative experiences. This describes:

        a. retroactive interference.
        b. proactive interference.
        c. mood-congruent memory.
        d. decay theory.

    7-27. Adam took a Spanish course during his first semester at university; during his second semester, he took a French course. Retroactive interference would suggest that Adam

        a. should now consider taking German.
        b. is going to have a difficult time learning French.
        c. is not going to remember his Spanish as well.
        d. is going to have a difficult time with both Spanish and French.

    7-28. Which theory suggests that forgetting is caused by a fading memory trace?

        a. reconstruction theory
        b. repression
        c. decay
        d. interference theory

    7-29. In retrograde amnesia, there is memory loss

        a. only for new information.
        b. only for segments of new information.
        c. for the complete past.
        d. only for a segment of the past.

    7-30. Which of the following is not an effective study strategy?

        a. rotely rehearse and memorize information
        b. pay attention and minimize distraction
        c. organize what you put into memory
        d. use mnemonic strategies


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