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The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View

© 2011
by Laura King

2nd Edition Active, In-Print 736 Pages Hardcover
9780073532066 0073532061

http://mhlearnsmart.com
How would you like to see your students' performance jump by a letter grade or more?

The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View 2e provides a flexible solution for the intro psych course. King's appreciative perspective - treating psych as an integrated science that places function before dysfunction - with its groundbreaking adaptive diagnostic tool helps students know what they know while guiding them to master what they don't know.

Building upon the much-lauded and widely-adopted 1st edition, the 2nd edition of The Science of Psychology effectively provides a flexible solution for any Introductory Psychology course. Recognising that todays students are different from the last generation as is the discipline of psychology, The Science of Psychology draws on thousands of hours of research into faculty and student behavior to provide course material students will actively engage with while allowing instructors to maximize the time they spend preparing and teaching the course. How has your course changed in the past 5-10 years?

From its adaptive questioning diagnostic tool and personalized study plan that gets students reading and studying more frequently, effectively and efficiently to the readable and lively prose that ensures students leave the course with an accurate and timely understanding of psychology as a science, The Science of Psychology is the right choice for todays classes, whether they be traditional face-to-face, hybrid, or entirely online.

Regardless of their study habits, preparation, and approach to your course, each of your students will find that The Science of Psychology adapts to them individually and provides a road map for success. For your students that complete the assigned reading and study in measured doses, The Science of Psychology offers a narrative that presents psychology as a science that addresses function as well as dysfunction and where the various subfields are interconnected. Those students who tend to “cram” before exams and/or seek the path of least resistance to their desired grade will be given an accurate assessment of how much or little they actually know prior to high stakes testing, and as a result, will spend more time reading and learning the assigned material than otherwise. How would fewer drops, failures, and withdrawals impact your course?

King, The Science of Psychology, Second Edition Contents

Preface

Chapter 1 What Is Psychology?

Defining Psychology

The Psychological Frame of Mind

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Are Young Americans in the Middle of a Narcissism Epidemic?

Psychology as the Science of All Human Behavior

Psychology in Historical Perspective Wundts Structuralism and Jamess Functionalism Darwins Natural Selection

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Explore Evolution from Giraffes to Human Beings

Contemporary Approaches to Psychology

The Biological Approach The Behavioral Approach The Psychodynamic Approach The Humanistic Approach The Cognitive Approach The Evolutionary Approach The Sociocultural Approach Summing Up the Seven Contemporary Approaches

What Psychologists Do

Careers in Psychology Areas of Specialization

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Questions That Psychology Specialists Ask

INTERSECTION Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural Psychology: Is Success Always Sweeter Than Failure?

The Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness

How the Mind Impacts the Body How the Body Impacts the Mind Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 2 Psychologys Scientific Method

Psychologys Scientific Method

Step 1. Observing Some Phenomenon Step 2. Formulating Hypotheses and Predictions Step 3. Testing Through Empirical Research Step 4. Drawing Conclusions Step 5. Evaluating the Theory

Types of Psychological Research

Descriptive Research Correlational Research

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Miserable but Helpful?

Experimental Research

INTERSECTION Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology: Is High Self-Esteem Such a Good Thing?

Applications of the Three Types of Research

Research Samples and Settings

The Research Sample The Research Setting

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Experimentation in a Natural Setting

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Descriptive Statistics Inferential Statistics

Conducting Ethical Research

Ethics Guidelines The Place of Values in Psychological Research

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Would Reality TV Pass the Institutional Review Board?

Thinking Critically About Psychological Research

Avoid Overgeneralizing Based on Little Information? Distinguish Between Group Results and Individual Needs Look for Answers Beyond a Single Study Avoid Attributing Causes When None Have Been Found Consider the Source of Psychological Information

The Scientific Method and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior

The Nervous System

Characteristics of the Nervous System Pathways in the Nervous System Divisions of the Nervous System

Neurons

Specialised Cell Structure The Neural Impulse Synapses and Neurotransmitters Neural Networks

Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

How Researchers Study the Brain and Nervous System How the Brain Is Organized

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY The Brain in Different Species

The Cerebral Cortex

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Are Human Brains Uniquely Wired to Recognize Faces?

The Cerebral Hemispheres and Split-Brain Research

INTERSECTION Emotion and Neuroscience: Is Your Brain Happy?

Integration of Function in the Brain

The Endocrine System

Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair

The Brains Plasticity and Capacity for Repair Brain Tissue Implants

Genetics and Behavior

Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA The Study of Genetics

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY The Jim Twins

Genes and the Environment

Psychologys Biological Foundations and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception

How We Sense and Perceive the World

The Processes and Purposes of Sensation and Perception

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Old Woman or Young Woman?

Sensory Receptors and the Brain Thresholds

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Subliminal Perception: Working Up a Thirst

Signal Detection Theory Perceiving Sensory Stimuli

INTERSECTION Perception and Social Psychology: Was That a Gun or Car Keys?

Sensory Adaptation Extrasensory Perception

The Visual System

The Visual Stimulus and the Eye Visual Processing in the Brain Color Vision Perceiving Shape, Depth, Motion, and Constancy

The Auditory System

The Nature of Sound and How We Experience It Structures and Functions of the Ear CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Are Cochlear Implants a “Cure” for Deafness? Theories of Hearing Auditory Processing in the Brain Localizing Sound Other Senses The Skin Senses The Chemical Senses The Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses

Sensation, Perception, and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 5 States of Consciousness

The Nature of Consciousness

Defining Consciousness Consciousness and the Brain Levels of Awareness

INTERSECTION Consciousness and Developmental Psychology: How Do We Develop a Sense of the Minds of Others?

Sleep and Dreams

Biological Rhythms and Sleep Why Do We Need Sleep? Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Taking a Ride on the Sleep Cycles

Sleep and Disease Sleep Disorders Dreams

Psychoactive Drugs

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Drug Use by American Teenagers

Uses of Psychoactive Drugs Types of Psychoactive Drugs

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Should Illicit Psychoactive Drugs Be Legalized for Medical Use?

Hypnosis The Nature of Hypnosis Explaining Hypnosis Uses of Hypnosis

Consciousness and Health and Wellness: Meditation

Mindfulness Meditation The Meditative State of Mind Getting Started with Meditation Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 6 Learning

Types of Learning

Classical Conditioning

Pavlovs Studies

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY From Acquisition to Extinction (to Spontaneous Recovery)

Classical Conditioning in Humans

Operant Conditioning

Defining Operant Conditioning Thorndikes Law of Effect Skinners Approach to Operant Conditioning Shaping

INTERSECTION Behaviorism and Cognitive Neuroscience: If It Feels Good, Is It Rewarding?

Principles of Reinforcement

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Schedules of Reinforcement and Different Patterns of Responding

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Will Sparing the Rod Spoil the Child?

Applied Behavior Analysis

Observational Learning

Cognitive Factors in Learning

Purposive Behavior Insight Learning

Biological, Cultural, and Psychological Factors in Learning

Biological Constraints Cultural Influences Psychological Constraints

Learning and Health and Wellness

What Can a Rat Tell Us About Stress? Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 7 Memory

The Nature of Memory

Memory Encoding

Attention Levels of Processing Elaboration Imagery

Memory Storage

Sensory Memory Short-Term Memory

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY The Inner Workings of Working Memory

Long-Term Memory

INTERSECTION Memory and Sensation: Why Does Smell Share a Special Relationship with Memory?

Memory Retrieval

Serial Position Effect

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Dont Mess with Mr. In-Between

Retrieval Cues and the Retrieval Task Special Cases of Retrieval

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Memories: Recovered, Discovered, or False?

Forgetting

Encoding Failure Retrieval Failure

Study Tips from the Science of Memory Memory and Health and Wellness

Keeping Memory Sharp Memory and Everyday Life Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 8 Thinking, Intelligence, and Language

The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology

Thinking

Concepts Problem Solving

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Thinking Outside the Box

Reasoning and Decision Making Thinking Critically and Creatively

INTERSECTION Emotion and Cognition: How Are You Feeling and Thinking Today?

Intelligence

Measuring Intelligence

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY The Normal Curve

Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence Extremes of Intelligence Theories of Multiple Intelligences

Language

The Basic Properties of Language Language and Cognition

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Does Gender Influence Language?

Biological and Environmental Influences on Language Language Development over the Life Span

Thinking, Problem Solving, and Health and Wellness

Cognitive Appraisal and Stress Cognitive Reappraisal Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 9 Human Development

Exploring Human Development

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology How Do Nature and Nurture Influence Development?

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Genes or Superparents: Which Matters More to Kids?

What Is the Developers Role in Development? Are Early or Later Life Experiences More Important in Development?

Child Development

Prenatal Development Physical Development in Childhood Cognitive Development in Childhood

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Thinking Critically About Object Permanence

Socioemotional Development in Childhood

INTERSECTION Developmental Psychology and Clinical Psychology: Is “Girl Talk” Always a Good Thing?

Adolescence

Physical Development in Adolescence Cognitive Development in Adolescence Socioemotional Development in Adolescence: The Emergence of Identity

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Looking at Identity Exploration Emerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging

Emerging Adulthood Physical Development in Adulthood Cognitive Development in Adulthood Socioemotional Development in Adulthood

Human Development and Health and Wellness

Coping and Adult Development Life Themes and Life-Span Development Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion

1. Theories of Motivation

2. Hunger, Obesity, and Eating Disorders

3. Beyond Hunger: Approaches to Motivation in Everyday Life

4. Emotion

5. Motivation, Emotion, and Health and Wellness: The Pursuit of Happiness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 11, Gender and Sexuality

1. Defining Sex and Gender

Sex and Its Biological Components Gender The Role of Genes Disorders of Sexual Development

2. Theories of Gender Development

Biological Approaches Evolutionary Psychology Approaches Social Cognitive Approaches Social Role Theory Evaluating the Theoretical Approaches to Gender

3. The Psychology of Gender Differences Infant Sex Differences Cognitive Differences

Gender Differences in Aggression

Gender Differences in Sexuality

Evaluating the Evidence for Gender

4. Sexual Orientation

Defining Sexual Orientation Measuring Sexual Orientation Occurrence of the Different Sexual Orientations Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle Gay and Lesbian Functioning Individual Adjustment and Well-Being Relationship Functioning Gay and Lesbian Families

5. Sexual Behaviors, Practices, and Attitudes

Sexual Behaviors Sexual Practices The Human Sexual Response Pattern Cognitive and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes

6. Gender and Sexual Variations and Disorders

Transgender: A Variation of Gender Identity Variations in Sexual Behavior Variations, Disorders, and the Meaning of Normality

7. Gender, Sexuality, and Health and Wellness Sexual Behavior and Physical Health Sexual Behavior and Psychological Well-Being Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 12, Personality

1. Psychodynamic Perspectives

2. Humanistic Perspectives

3. Trait Perspectives

4. Personological and Life Story Perspectives

5. Social Cognitive Perspectives

6. Biological Perspectives

7. Personality Assessment

8. Personality and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 13, Social Psychology

1. Social Cognition

2. Social Behavior

3. Social Influence

4. Intergroup Relations

5. Close Relationships

6. Social Psychology and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 14, Industrial and Organizational Psychology

1. Origins of I/O Psychology

2. Industrial Psychology

3. Organizational Psychology

4. Organizational Culture

5. I/O Psychology and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 15, Psychological Disorders

1. Defining and Explaining Abnormal Behavior

2. Anxiety Disorders

3. Mood Disorders

4. Eating Disorders

5. Dissociative Disorders

6. Schizophrenia

7. Personality Disorders

8. Psychological Disorders and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 16, Therapies

1. Biological Therapies

2. Psychotherapy

3. Sociocultural Approaches and Issues in Treatment

4. The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

5. Therapies and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 17, Health Psychology

1. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

2. Making Positive Life Changes

3. Resources for Effective Life Change

4. Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

5. Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as If Your Life Depends upon It

6. Integrating Psychology and Health and Wellness

Summary Key Terms Apply Your Knowledge
New to this Edition

King Science of Psychology provides Connect Psychology with an adaptive questioning diagnostic (LearnSmart) that ensures students understand the key concepts in the chapter. LearnSmart is an adaptive learning system designed to help students learn faster, study more efficiently, and retain more knowledge for greater success. LearnSmart quickly shows students they are not likely to perform as well as they would like--or as previous performance might predict--if they are only "reading" the text to memorize key terms, facts, and people. Students who use the adaptive diagnostic tool are seeing their grades improve by a letter grade or more. Whether they use this dynamic resource before or after class, your students will read more and read more effectively. In addition, Connect Psychology offers turnkey course setups available almost immediately, or the course can be customized at virtually any level of granularity. This makes Science of Psychology perfect for face-to-face, online, or hybrid course delivery.

Science of Psychologys pedagogical and analytical thinking aides Intersections and Psychological Inquiry complement the on-line tools by encouraging student's critical thinking and active engagement with the reading.

Based on a comprehensive research study conducted by Auburn University, our new computerized test bank has been rigorously developed to reflect the range and depth of assessment required for effective introductory psychology instruction. In addition, each question and corresponding answer choices have been reviewed and vetted by introductory psychology instructors for validity and correctness.

New Chapter on Gender and Sexuality expands the emphasis on health and wellness. This chapter addresses topics such as theories of gender development, the psychology of gender differences, sexual orientation and gay functioning, and sexual health and wellness

Laura Kings contemporary, engaging and personal writing style draws students into the text encouraging them to read more actively and critically

Correlation Guide:

www.mhhe.com/mhcp/CorrelationGuides/AE_Psychology_1112.pdf

This convenient guide matches the units in Annual Editions: Psychology 11/12 with the corresponding chapters in three of our best-selling McGraw-Hill Psychology textbooks by Lahey, King, and Feldman.




Retained Features

Psychology as an integrated whole. Presents psychology as an integrated field in which many specialized subfields overlap and where research findings in one subfield support important studies and exciting discoveries in another.

What you need, where you need it.

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