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Exploring Writing: Paragraphs and Essays & Connect Writing (1.0) Access Card

© 2010
by John Langan

2nd Edition Active, In-Print 9780077406691 0077406699
Exploring Writing: Paragraphs and Essays serves as a guidebook for every step of the writing process. Emphasizing both process and practice, with a focus on revision, the new second edition helps to apply and advance writing skills using John Langan's proven techniques. Mastering essential sentence skills, learning to write effective paragraphs and essays, and becoming a critical reader are turning points for every writer, and they will prepare the students for writing situations in college and beyond.

EXPLORING WRITING: PARAGRAPHS AND ESSAYS, 2/e

By John Langan

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE

PART ONE: WRITING: SKILLS AND PROCESS

An Introduction to Writing Point and Support An Important Difference between Writing and Talking Point and Support in a Paragraph Knowing Your Purpose and Audience Benefits of Paragraph Writing Writing as a Skill Writing as a Process of Discovery Keeping a Journal Tips on Using a Computer Ways to Use a Computer at Each Stage of the Writing Process Review Activities

The Writing Process Prewriting Technique 1: Freewriting Technique 2: Questioning Technique 3: Making a List Technique 4: Clustering Technique 5: Preparing a Scratch Outline Writing a First Draft Writing a First Draft: A Student Model Revising Revising Content Revising Sentences Editing An Illustration of the Revising and Editing Processes Using Peer Review Identification Scratch Outline Comments Review Activities Taking a Writing Inventory Prewriting Outlining Revising

PART ONE: A Writer's Template: Across Disciplines

PART TWO: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE WRITING

The First and Second Steps in Writing Step 1: Begin with a Point Identifying Common Errors in Topic Sentences Understanding the Two Parts of a Topic Sentence Selecting a Topic Sentence Writing a Topic Sentence I Writing a Topic Sentence II Step 2: Support the Point with Specific Evidence The Point as an "Umbrella? Idea Reinforcing Point and Support The Importance of Specific Details Recognizing Specific Details I Recognizing Specific Details II Providing Supporting Evidence The Importance of Adequate Details Identifying Adequate Supporting Evidence Adding Details to Complete a Paragraph Writing a Simple Paragraph

The Third Step and Fourth Steps in Writing Step 3: Organize and Connect the Specific Evidence Common Methods of Organization: Time Order and Emphatic Order Transitions Other Connecting Words Step 4: Write Clear, Error-Free Sentences Revising Sentences Use Parallelism Use a Consistent Point of View Use Specific Words Use Concise Wording Vary Your Sentences Editing Sentences Hints for Editing A Note on Proofreading

Four Bases for Revising Writing Base 1: Unity Understanding Unity Checking for Unity Base 2: Support Understanding Support Checking for Support Base 3: Coherence Understanding Coherence Checking for Coherence Base 4: Sentence Skills Understanding Sentence Skills Checking for Sentence Skills Evaluating Paragraphs for All Four Bases: Unity, Support, Coherence, and Sentence Skills

PART TWO: A Writer's Template: Across Disciplines

PART THREE: PARAGRAPH DEVELOPMENT

Exemplification Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing an Exemplification Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing an Exemplification Paragraph

Narration Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing a Narrative Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing a Narrative Paragraph

Description Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing a Descriptive Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing a Descriptive Paragraph

Process Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing a Process Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing a Process Paragraph

Cause and Effect Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing a Cause-and-Effect Paragraph

Comparison or Contrast Paragraphs to Consider Methods of Development One Side at a Time Point by Point Additional Paragraph to Consider Questions Developing a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing a Comparison or Contrast Paragraph

Definition Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing a Definition Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing a Definition Paragraph

Division-Classification Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing a Division-Classification Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing a Division-Classification Paragraph

Argument Strategies for Arguments Paragraphs to Consider Questions Developing an Argument Paragraph Development through Prewriting Development through Revising Writing an Argument Paragraph

PART THREE: A Writer's Template: Across Disciplines

PART FOUR: ESSAY DEVELOPMENT

Introduction to Essay Development What Is an Essay? Differences Between an Essay and Paragraph Structure of the Traditional Essay A Model Essay Parts of an Essay Diagram of an Essay Identifying the Parts of an Essay Important Considerations in Essay Development Determining Your Point of View Doing a Personal Review

Writing the Essay Step 1: Begin with a Point, or Thesis Understanding Thesis Statements Writing a Good Thesis I Writing a Good Thesis II Step 2: Support the Thesis with Specific Evidence The Importance of Specific Details The Importance of Adequate Details Adding Details to Complete an Essay Step 3: Organize and Connect the Specific Evidence Common Methods of Organization Transitions Other Connecting Words Identifying Transitions and Other Connecting Words Step 4: Write Clear, Error-Free Sentences Use Active Verbs Practice in Revising Sentences Revising Essays for All Four Bases: Unity, Support, Coherence, and Sentence Skills

Introductions, Conclusions, and Titles Introductory Paragraph Functions of the Introduction Common Methods of Introduction Concluding Paragraph Common Methods of Conclusion Identifying Introductions and Conclusions Titles Essay Writing Assignments

Patterns of Essay Development Developing an Exemplification Essay Developing a Process Essay Developing a Cause-and-Effect Essay Developing a Comparison or Contrast Essay Developing a Definition Essay Developing a Division-Classification Essay Developing a Descriptive Essay Developing a Narrative Essay Developing an Argument Essay

Special College Skills Taking Essay Exams Step 1: Anticipate Ten Probable Questions Step 2: Prepare and Memorize an Informal Outline Answer for Each Question Step 3: Look at the Exam Carefully and Do Several Things Step 4: Prepare a Brief, Informal Outline before Writing Your Essay Answer Step 5: Write a Clear, Well-Organized Essay Writing a Summary How to Summarize an Article How to Summarize a Book Writing a Report Part 1 of a Report: A Summary of the Work Part 2 of a Report: Your Reaction to the Work Points to Keep in Mind When Writing a Report A Model Report

Writing a Research Paper Step 1: Select a Topic That You Can Readily Research Researching at a Local Library Researching on the Internet Step 2: Limit Your Topic and Make the Purpose of Your Paper Clear Step 3: Gather Information on Your Limited Topic Step 4: Plan Your Paper and Take Notes on Your Limited Topic Preparing a Scratch Outline Note-Taking A Caution about Plagiarism Step 5: Write the Paper Step 6: Use an Acceptable Format and Method of Documentation Model Paper

PART FOUR: A Writer's Template: Across Disciplines

PART FIVE: HANDBOOK OF SENTENCE SKILLS

GRAMMAR 21.Subjects and Verbs 22.Sentence Sense 23.Fragments 24.Run-Ons 25..Regular and Irregular Verbs 26.Subject-Verb Agreement 27..Additional Information about Verbs 28.Pronoun Agreement and Reference 29.Pronoun Types 30.Adjectives and Adverbs 31.Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers GRAMMAR EDITING TESTS

MECHANICS 32.Manuscript Form 33.Capital Letters 34.Numbers and Abbreviations MECHANICS EDITING TESTS

PUNCTUATION 35.Apostrophe 36.Quotation Marks 37.Comma 38.Other Punctuation Marks PUNCTUATION EDITING TESTS

WORD USE 39.Spelling Improvement 40.Commonly Confused Words 41.Effective Word Choice 42.Combined Editing Tests 43.ESL Pointers

PART FIVE: READINGS FOR WRITING

Introduction to the Readings Looking Inward Thank You, Alex Haley Shame, Dick Gregory The Professor is a Dropout, Beth Johnson I Became Her Target, Roger Wilkins Prison Studies, Malcom X (personal essay) *NEW* When Broken Glass Floats: Growing Up Under the Khmer Rouge, Chanrithy Him (personal essay) *NEW* Address by Cesar Chavez, President United Farm Workers of America, AFL-CIO Before Building Industry *NEW* Association of Northern California, 11/21/91, San Jose (historical doc) *NEW* Observing Others Propaganda Techniques in Today's Advertising Ann McClintock This is How We Live, Ellen DeGeneres (book excerpt) *NEW* Kanye West World, Lola Ogunnaike (magazine article) *NEW* Start By Sitting Together, Randy Pausch (book excerpt) *NEW* Inaugural Address of John F. Kennedy (historical doc) *NEW* Neat People vs. Sloppy People, Suzanne Brit (book excerpt) *NEW* Petophila, Jon Katz (Web article) *NEW* Confronting Problems How to Make It in College, Now That You?re Here, Brian O'Keeney In Praise of the F Word, Mary Sherry Is Sex All That Matters?, Joyce Garity Cyberbullying, Thomas J. Billitteri (information/reports) *NEW* Why Profiling Won?t Work, William Raspberry (newspaper article) *NEW* 9/11 Commission Report, "Heroism and Horror: Preparedness as of September 11? (information/reports) *NEW*

APPENDIX: Writing a Resume and Cover Letter

INDEX

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