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Doing Philosophy: An Introduction Through Thought Experiments

© 2013
by Theodore Schick Lewis Vaughn

5th Edition Active, In-Print 672 Pages Hardcover
9780078038259 0078038251

http://www.mhhe.com/schick5e
Now in its fifth successful edition, Doing Philosophy helps students understand the nature and purpose of philosophical inquiry by explaining what philosophical problems are, how they can be solved, and why searching for solutions is important. The book traces the historical development of philosophical thinking on a number of central problems and shows how philosophical theories have evolved in response to criticism. By introducing students to philosophical theorizing and encouraging them to formulate their own views, Doing Philosophy inspires active learning and helps students become more accomplished critical thinkers.

Table of Contents subject to change before publication.

Preface

CHAPTER 1 The Philosophical Enterprise Objectives

Section 1.1 Explaining the Possibility of the Impossible: Philosophical Problems and Theories Philosophical Problems Metaphysics Epistemology Axiology Logic The Stakes in Philosophical Inquiry The Mind-Body Problem The Problem of Free Will The Problem of Personal Identity The Problem of Moral Relativism The Problem of Evil The Problem of Skepticism Box: What Is Your Philosophy? Necessary and Sufficient Conditions Socrates and the Socratic Method Box: In the News: The Oracle at Delphi Box: Pre-Socratic Philosophers Science and the Scientific Method Box: The Laws of Thought Logical versus Causal Possibility Thought Probe: Possibilities Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 1.2 Evidence and Inference: Proving Your Point Identifying Arguments Deductive Arguments Some Valid Argument Forms Some Invalid Argument Forms Inductive Arguments Enumerative Induction Analogical Induction Hypothetical Induction (Abduction, Inference to the Best Explanation) Informal Fallacies Unacceptable Premises Irrelevant Premises Insufficient Premises Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 1.3 The Laboratory of the Mind: Thought Experiments Thought Probe: Platonic Humans Case Study: Explaining How Moral Abortions Are Possible Thought Experiment: Warren's Moral Space Traveler Thought Probe: The American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Robots How Are Thought Experiments Possible? Criticizing Thought Experiments Conceivability and Possibility Scientific Thought Experiments Thought Experiment: Impossibility of Aristotle's Theory of Motion Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Thought Experiment: Tooley's Cat Thought Experiment: Thomson's Diseased Musician Internet Inquiries

Readings Bertrand Russell: The Value of Philosophy Reading Questions Brand Blanshard: The Philosophic Enterprise Reading Questions

CHAPTER 2 The Mind-Body Problem Thought Experiment: Descartes? Mechanical Moron Thought Experiment: Leibniz's Mental Mill Box: In the News: The Approaching Singularity Thought Probe: Artificial Intelligence

Objectives

Section 2.1 The Ghost in the Machine: Mind as Soul Descartes' Doubt Thought Probe: Living in the Matrix Box: Rene Descartes: Father of Modern Philosophy I Think, Therefore I Am The Conceivability Argument Box: The Biblical Conception of the Person Box: In the News: Descartes and Vivisection The Divisibility Argument The Problem of Interaction Box: Parallelism: Occasionalism and the Preestablished Harmony The Causal Closure of the Physical Box: The Seat of the Soul Thought Probe: Mental Relay Stations The Problem of Other Minds Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 2.2 You Are What You Eat: Mind as Body Empiricism Box: David Hume: The Model Philosopher Logical Positivism Logical Behaviorism Box: Ryle's Category Mistake Thought Experiment: Ryle's University Seeker Thought Experiment: The Perfect Pretender Thought Experiment: Putnam's Super-Spartans Box: Behavioral Therapy Thought Experiment: Chisholm's Expectant Nephew The Identity Theory Thought Probe: The Ultimate Lie Detector Identity and Indiscernibility Conscious Experience Box: Do You Use Only 10% of Your Brain? Thought Experiment: Nagel's Bat Thought Experiment: Lewis's Pained Martian Thought Experiment: Putnam's Conscious Computer Thought Probe: Speciesism Thought Experiment: Searle's Brain Replacement Box: In the News: Neural Chips Thought Probe: Neural Prostheses Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Thought Experiment: Your Mother, the Zombie Internet Inquiries

Section 2.3 I, Robot: Mind as Software Artificial Intelligence Functionalism and Feeling Thought Experiment: Lewis's Pained Madman Thought Experiment: Block's Chinese Nation Thought Experiment: Putnam's Inverted Spectrum Box: Inverted Spectra and Pseudonormal Vision Thought Probe: Pseudonormal Vision The Turing Test Thought Experiment: The Imitation Game Box: Alan Turing: Father of Code and Computers Thought Experiment: Searle's Chinese Room Box: Connectionism Thought Experiment: Searle's Chinese Gym Thought Probe: Total Turing Test Intentionality Thought Experiment: Block's Conversational Jukebox Thought Probe: Devout Robots Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 2.4 There Ain't No Such Things as Ghosts: Mind as Myth Thought Experiment: Rorty's Demons Folk Psychology Thought Experiment: Searle's Chevrolet Station Wagon Subjective Knowledge Thought Experiment: Jackson's Color-Challenged Scientist Box: In the News: Seeing Color for the First Time Thought Probe: Seeing Color Thought Experiment: Zombies Thought Probe: Zombies Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 2.5 The Whole Is Greater Than the Sum of Its Parts: Mind as Quality Primitive Intentionality Box: The Double Aspect Theory Thought Experiment: Jacquette's Intentionality Test Panpsychism Emergentism Box: An Emergent God? Thought Probe: Pan-en-theism Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Readings Rene Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation II Reading Questions David M. Armstrong: The Mind-Brain Identity Theory Reading Questions David Chalmers: The Puzzle of Concious Experience Reading Questions Terry Bisson: They're Made of Meat Reading Questions

CHAPTER 3 Free Will and Determinism Box: In the Courts: The Devil Made Me Do It Objectives

Section 3.1 The Luck of the Draw: Freedom as Chance Hard Determinism Thought Experiment: Laplace's Superbeing The Consequence Argument Box: Freedom and Foreknowledge Thought Probe: Freedom and Foreknowledge Box: Fatalism versus Causal Determinism Thought Probe: The Book of Life Science and the Nature/Nurture Debate Determinism Thought Probe: Behavior Modification Box: Faking Free Will Thought Probe: Faking Free Will Box: Is Determinism Self-Refuting? Thought Probe: Defending Determinism Thought Probe: Genetic Engineering Thought Experiment: Gardner's Random Bombardier Common Sense and Causal Determinism Thought Probe: Living with Hard Determinism Indeterminism Box: William James: Physiologist, Psychologist, Philosopher Thought Experiment: Taylor's Unpredictable Arm Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Thought Experiment: Newcomb's Paradox Internet Inquiries

Section 3.2 The Mother of Invention: Freedom as Necessity Thought Experiment: Locke's Trapped Conversationalist Traditional Compatibilism Box: Thomas Hobbes: The Great Materialist Punishment Prepunishment Thought Probe: Minority Report Thought Experiment: Taylor's Ingenious Physiologist Box: In the News: Guilty Minds and Pre-Crime Thought Probe: Guilty Minds and Pre-Crime Thought Experiment: Taylor's Drug Addiction Thought Probe: Religious Cults Hierarchical Compatibilism Box: In the Courts: Government-Sponsored Brainwashing Thought Probe: The Manchurian Candidate Box: Better Living through Neurophysiology Thought Probe: Brain Stimulation Thought Experiment: Frankfurt's Unwilling and Wanton Addicts Thought Experiment: Frankfurt's Happy Addict Thought Experiment: Frankfurt's Decision Inducer Thought Experiment: Slote's Hypnotized Patient Thought Probe: The Willing Bank Teller Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 3.3 Control Yourself: Freedom as Self-Determination The Case for Freedom The Argument from Experience The Argument from Deliberation The Neurophysiological Challenge Thought Probe: Is Free Won?t Enough for Free Will? Agent Causation Box: Sartre and Smullyan on Free Will Thought Probe: Self-Consciousness and Free Will Thought Probe: Free Androids Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Readings Richard Dawkins: Let's All Stop Beating Basil's Car Reading Questions W. T. Stace: The Problem of Free Will Reading Questions John Dupre: The Solution to the Provlem of the Freedom of the Will Reading Questions Geoffrey Klempner: The Black Box Reading Questions

CHAPTER 4 The Problem of Personal Identity Box: In the Courts: Kathleen Soliah, a.k.a. Sara Jane Olson Thought Probe: A Different Person

Section 4.1 We Are Such Stuff as Dreams Are Made On: Self as Substance Thought Probe: Hobbes's Ship of Theseus Persons Thought Probe: Dolphins Animalism Thought Experiment: The Vegetable Case Box: In the News: Eternal Life through Cloning Thought Probe: Safe Cloning Thought Experiment: Benjamin's Questionable Cure Box: The Definition of Death Thought Probe: Permanently Unconscious Thought Experiment: Locke's Tale of the Prince and the Cobbler Thought Experiment: The Transplant Case Thought Experiment: Unger's Great Pain Box: In the Courts: Multiple-Personality Disorder Thought Probe: Multiple Personalities The Soul Theory Box: St. Augustine: Soul Man Thought Experiment: The King of China Box: Transubstantiation Thought Experiment: Nestor and Thersites Thought Experiment: Kant's Soul Switch Thought Probe: Souls in Heaven Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 4.2 Golden Memories: Self as Psyche The Memory Theory Box: John Locke: The Great Empiricist Box: In the Courts: Sleepwalking and Murder Thought Probe: Sleepwalking and Murder Thought Probe: Memory Damping The Inconsistency Objection Thought Experiment: Reid's Tale of the Brave Officer and Senile General Thought Probe: Were You Ever a Fetus? The Circularity Objection Box: In the News: Soul Catcher Thought Probe: Soul Catcher Thought Probe: Merging of the Minds The Insufficiency Objection The Psychological Continuity Theory Thought Probe: Is Darth Vader Anakin Skywalker? The Reduplication Problem I: Reincarnation Thought Experiment: Williams's Reincarnation of Guy Fawkes Thought Experiment: Williams's Reduplication Argument The Reduplication Problem II: Teletransportation Thought Experiment: Parfit's Transporter Tale Box: Quantum Teleportation Thought Probe: Transporter Travel Thought Probe: Can You Go to Heaven? Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Thought Experiment: Bodily Torture Internet Inquiries

Section 4.3 You Can't Step into the Same River Twice: Self as Process The Brain Theory Thought Experiment: Shoemaker's Brain Transplant Box: A Brain Is a Terrible Thing to Waste Thought Probe: Body Transplants Split Brains Box: Alien Hand Syndrome Thought Probe: Who Is Behind the Hand? Thought Experiment: Parfit's Division Closest Continuer Theories Box: Buddhists on the Self and Nirvana Thought Probe: Branch Lines Identity and What Matters in Survival Identity and What Matters in Responsibility Thought Experiment: Parfit's Reformed Nobelist Explaining the Self Thought Probe: Robert and Frank Moral Agents, Narratives, and Persons Thought Probe: Being Clive Wearing Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Readings John Locke: Of Identity and Diversity Reading Questions Derek Parfit: Divided Minds and the Nature of Persons Reading Questions Ray Kurzweil: Live Forever Reading Questions

CHAPTER 5 The Problem of Relativism and Morality Objectives

Section 5.1 Don't Question Authority: Might Makes Right Subjective Absolutism Subjective Relativism Emotivism Thought Experiment: Blanshard's Rabbit Cultural Relativism Box: In the News: Universal Human Rights The Anthropological Argument The Logical Structure of Moral Judgments Thought Probe: When in Rome The Divine Command Theory Box: In the Courts: God Is My Attorney Thought Probe: Commanded to Kill Box: The Fortunes of Hell Are There Universal Moral Principles? Box: Moral Children Thought Probe: Moral Children Thought Probe: Moral Knowledge Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 5.2 The End Justifies the Means: Good Makes Right Box: Is Life Intrinsically Valuable? Thought Probe: Moral Justification Ethical Egoism Box: Ayn Rand on the Virtue of Selfishness Thought Experiment: Feinberg's Single-Minded Hedonist Act-Utilitarianism Box: Jeremy Bentham: Making Philosophy Do Work Thought Probe: Animal Rights Problems with Rights Thought Experiment: McCloskey's Utilitarian Informant Thought Experiment: Brandt's Utilitarian Heir Problems with Duties Thought Experiment: Ross's Unhappy Promise Box: In the News: Killing Disabled Babies Thought Probe: Singer's Preference Utilitarianism Thought Experiment: Godwin's Fire Rescue Problems with Justice Thought Experiment: Ewing's Utilitarian Torture Thought Experiment: Ewing's Innocent Criminal Thought Probe: The Utility Machine Rule-Utilitarianism Thought Experiment: Nozick's Experience Machine Thought Probe: Beneficial Drugs Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Thought Experiment: Williams's South American Showdown Thought Experiment: Thomson's Trolley Problem Thought Experiment: Thomson's Transplant Problem Internet Inquiries

Section 5.3 Much Obliged: Duty Makes Right Kant's Categorical Imperative The First Formulation Box: Immanuel Kant: Small-Town Genius Thought Experiment: Hare's Nazi Fanatic Thought Experiment: Ross's Good Samaritan The Second Formulation Box: In the News: Kant, Mill, and the War in Iraq Thought Probe: War Thought Experiment: Broad's Typhoid Man Thought Experiment: Ewing's Prudent Diplomat Thought Probe: Easy Rescue Ross's Prima Facie Duties Thought Probe: Desert Island Bequest Rawls's Contractarianism Thought Probe: Just Policies Nozick's Libertarianism Thought Experiment: Nozick's Basketball Player Thought Probe: Consensual Cannibalism Justice, the State, and the Social Contract Hobbes Locke Nozick Thought Experiment: Widerquist's Libertarian Monarchy Thought Probe: Libertarian Government The Ethics of Care Box: In the News: Jillian's Choice Thought Probe: Jillian's Choice Thought Probe: Lying with Care Making Ethical Decisions Thought Probe: The Zygmanik Brothers Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 5.4 Character is Destiny: Virtue Makes Right The Virtuous Utilitarian The Virtuous Kantian Thought Experiment: Stocker's Hospitalized Patient The Purpose of Morality Box: Children without a Conscience Thought Probe: Empathy and Agency Aristotle on Virtue Box: Aristotle: Pillar of Western Thought Box: The Buddha on Virtue MacIntyre on Virtue Nussbaum on Virtue Thought Probe: Medical Treatment Virtue Ethics Thought Probe: The Ring of Gyges Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Readings W. T. Stace: Are Ethical Values Relative? Reading Questions Jeremy Bentham: Of the Principle of Utility Reading Questions Immanuel Kant: Good Will, Duty, and the Categorical Imperative Reading Questions Martha Nussbaum: Non-Relative Virtues Reading Questions Ursula K. Leguin: The Ones Who Walk Away from Omelas Reading Questions

CHAPTER 6 The Problem of Evil and the Existence of God Box: Biblical Archaeology Thought Probe: Biblical Truths Box: Religious Adherents Thought Probe: Deluded Believers Thought Probe: Holy Scripture Objectives

Section 6.1 The Mysterious Universe: God as Creator The Traditional Cosmological Argument Box: Thomas Aquinas The Kalam Cosmological Argument Thought Probe: Why a Universe? The Teleological Argument The Analogical Design Argument Thought Experiment: Paley's Watch The Best-Explanation Design Argument Box: In the Courts: Is Evolution Just a Theory? Box: Extraterrestrial Design Thought Probe: Intelligent Design Box: Creationism and Morality Thought Probe: Human Design Flaws The Argument from Miracles Box: Parting the Red Sea Thought Probe: Parting the Red Sea Box: Was Jesus a Magician? Thought Probe: Jesus's Miracles Thought Probe: The Fivefold Challenge The Argument from Religious Experience Box: This Is Your Brain on God Thought Probe: Religious Experience The Ontological Argument Anselm's Ontological Argument Thought Experiment: Gaunilo's Lost Island Descartes? Ontological Argument Thought Experiment: Edwards's Gangle Thought Probe: One More God Pascal's Wager Thought Experiment: Pascal's Wager Box: Silverman's Wager Thought Probe: The Best Bet Thought Probe: Alien Religion God and Science Thought Probe: Goulder vs. Augustine Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 6.2 When Bad Things Happen to Good People: God as Troublemaker Thought Experiment: Rowe's Fawn St. Augustine and the Free-Will Defense Box: Karma and the Problem of Inequality Thought Probe: Karma Thought Probe: Is There Free Will in Heaven? The Knowledge Defense The Ideal-Humanity Defense Box: In the News: Natural Evil The Soul-Building Defense The Finite-God Defense Thought Probe: What If God Died? Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Thought Experiment: The Invisible Gardener Internet Inquiries

Section 6.3 Faith and Meaning: Believing the Unbelievable The Leap of Faith Thought Probe: Kierkegaard and Russell Evidentialism Thought Probe: Blanshard's Beliefs The Will to Believe Thought Probe: James and Pandeism The Meaning of Life Thought Experiment: God's Plan Thought Probe: Meaning and Morality Existentialism Thought Probe: Meaning and Purpose Religion without God Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Readings St. Thomas Aquinas: The Five Ways Reading Questions Richard Swinburne: Natural Theology Reading Questions David Hume: Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion Reading Questions B.C. Johnson: God and the Problem of Evil Reading Questions Michael Martin: The Miracle Sleuth Reading Questions

CHAPTER 7 The Problem of Skepticism and Knowledge Objectives

Section 7.1 Things Aren't Always What They Seem: Skepticism about Skepticism Greek Rationalism Parmenides Thought Probe: Thinking about Nothing Zeno Thought Experiment: Zeno's Paradox of Bisection Plato Box: Solving Parmenides? and Zeno's Paradoxes Thought Probe: Innate Knowledge Cartesian Skepticism Cartesian Doubt Thought Experiment: Descartes? Dream Argument Thought Probe: Dreams and Reality Thought Experiment: Descartes? Evil Genius Argument Thought Experiment: Unger's Mad Scientist Cartesian Certainty Reasonable Doubt The Empiricist Alternative The Problem of Induction Thought Probe: Science and Faith The Kantian Synthesis Thought Probe: Constructing Reality Mystical Experience Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 7.2 Facing Reality: Perception and the External World Direct Realism Representative Realism Thought Probe: Hypothesizing the External World Phenomenalism Thought Experiment: The Inconceivability of the Unconceived Box: George Berkeley: The Ultimate Empiricist Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Section 7.3 What Do You Know? Knowing What Knowledge Is Thought Experiment: Gettier's Guy in Barcelona The Defeasibility Theory Thought Experiment: Lehrer and Paxson's Demented Mrs. Grabit The Causal Theory Thought Experiment: Goldman's Fake Barns The Reliability Theory Thought Experiment: Lehrer's Human Thermometer Virtue Perspectivism The Explanationist Theory Summary Study Questions Discussion Questions Internet Inquiries

Readings Rene Descartes: Meditations on First Philosophy: Meditation 1 Reading Questions Bertrand Russell: On Induction Reading Questions Ernest Sosa: Virtue Perspectivism Reading Questions Thomas D. Davis: Why Don't You Just Wake Up? Reading Questions

Notes

Credits

Index

New to this Edition

New readings by Richard Dawkins, John Dupre, Geoffrey Klempner, and Ernest Sosa acquaint students with philosophical thinking at the forefront of current research.

New sections on justice and the state, God and science, the nature vs. nurture debate, and virtue epistemology show students how philosophical thinking informs current debates in politics, religion, and science.

Expanded discussions of political libertarianism, metaphysical libertarianism, compatibilism, animalism, the categorical imperative, and the Gettier problem provide deeper understanding of important philosophical theories and reveal how philosophical thinking responds to scientific discoveries.

New boxes and Thought Probes (critical thinking sections based on philosophical concepts) encourage students to think more deeply about the various implications of philosophical theories.


Retained Features

Thought experiments describe the possible situations in which a particular theory should hold, encouraging students to examine both the theory and the thought experiment. "Thought Probes" throughout each chapter challenge students to conduct their own thought experiments.

Classic and contemporary readings at the end of each chapter provides context for the philosophical theories and thought experiments. Each set of readings concludes with a piece of fiction that revisits many of the philosophical questions examined in the chapter.

"In the Courts" and "In the News" boxes in each chapter show how legal decisions and current events inform and are influenced by philosophical thinking, providing students with additional examples of philosophy at work in the world around them.

"Reading Questions" accompany each of the readings, helping students to better identify and evaluate key points in the selection.

A coherent theoretical framework aids students in their understanding of contemporary and traditional philosophical problems.

What you need, where you need it.

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