Foundations of Early Childhood Education: Teaching Children in a Diverse Society

© 2014
by Janet Gonzalez-Mena

6th Edition 512 Pages Hardback
9780078024481 007802448X

http://www.mhhe.com/gonzalezfound6e

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Foundations of Early Childhood Education: Teaching Children in a Diverse Society is designed to help increase the quality in early care and education programs through training teachers. It features skill building with a solid theoretical base, and provides students with an overview of early childhood programs through the use of examples, anecdotes, and scenarios. Readers will come away with an understanding of what makes a quality early childhood education program, where children gain the foundations they need for school success and beyond.

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Contents

PREFACE XIX

ABOUT THE AUTHOR XXV

Part 1

Foundations of the Teaching?Learning Process

The Role of the Early Childhood Educator 1 Early Childhood Education as a Career 4 FOUR THEMES IN EARLY CHILDHOOD TEACHER TRAINING 6 The Value of Reflective Practice 6 A Multicultural Perspective 7 A Holistic Approach 7 Professionalism 9 CHILD-DEVELOPMENT HISTORY 18 Historical Trends and Figures 18 CHILD-DEVELOPMENT THEORISTS AND THEIR THEORIES 21 PIONEER EDUCATORS 28 Brain Research 30 WHAT IT MEANS TO BE AN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATOR 31 Legal Responsibilities 32 CODE OF ETHICS 34 A STORY TO END WITH 34 SUMMARY 35 ONLINE RESOURCES 35 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 36 TERMS TO KNOW 36 FOR FURTHER READING 36

2 First Things First: Health and Safety Through Observation and Supervision 38 OBSERVATION, SUPERVISION AND GUIDANCE 40 OBSERVATION SKILLS FOR BEGINNERS 41 SUPERVISION SKILLS FOR BEGINNERS 43 Focusing on Individuals and the Group 44 A Crash Course in Guidance 46 Conflict as a Safety Issue 51 Risk Taking as a Safety Measure 54 Helping Children Learn from Their Experiences 54 A SAFE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT 55 Developmental Appropriateness 55 Maintenance as Prevention 56 Sanitation Procedures 56 Program Policies and Procedures for Health and Safety 57 Stress and Frustration as Health and Safety Issues 58 A STORY TO END WITH 59 SUMMARY 60 ONLINE RESOURCES 60 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 60 TERMS TO KNOW 61 FOR FURTHER READING 61

3 Communicating with Young Children 62 COMMUNICATION, RELATIONSHIPS,AND THE COGNITIVE CONNECTION 64 LISTENING: AN IMPORTANT SKILL 66 Listening and Giving Feedback Are Valuable to Communication 66 Listening and Responding to Different Situations 68 HOW TO COMMUNICATE CLEARLY 74 Ask Real Questions, Not Rhetorical Ones 75 Validate Feelings and Perceptions Instead of Discounting Them 75 Address Uncomfortable Situations Instead of Ignoring the Obvious 76 Be Congruent; Avoid Incongruence 77 Watch Out for Double-Bind Messages 78 Use Redirection Instead of Distraction 78 Be Sensitive About Questioning Children 81 USING OBSERVATION AND REFLECTION TO IMPROVE COMMUNICATION 82 A STORY TO END WITH 84 SUMMARY 84 ONLINE RESOURCES 84 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 84 TERMS TO KNOW 85 FOR FURTHER READING 85

4 Facilitating Young Children's Work and Play 86 WHO'S IN THE SPOTLIGHT?ADULT OR CHILDREN? 88 The Teacher as Director and Star 89 The Teacher as Responder, Protector, and Facilitator 90 PLAY, COGNITION, AND LEARNING 90 Focus on Inclusion: Making Play Available and Appropriate for All Children 94 Playing to Get Smart 97 Is Play Always Fun? 97 How Does Play Differ from Work? 98 Types of Play?Cognitive and Social 98 Benefits of Play 102 WORK: A WAY OF LEARNING 104 Adult Attitudes Toward Work and Their Effect on Children 104 Children's Observations of Adults at Work 105 The Project Approach to Learning 107 THE ADULT?S ROLES IN CHILDREN?S WORK AND PLAY 107 The Adult as Observer 107 The Adult as Stage Manager 109 The Adult as Teacher 110 The Adult as Encourager 112 A STORY TO END WITH 116 SUMMARY 117 ONLINE RESOURCES 117 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 117 TERMS TO KNOW 117 FOR FURTHER READING 118

5 Guiding Young Children's Behavior 120 APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR AL EXPECTATIONS 122 PUNISHMENT, INCLUDING SPANKING, IS A NO NO 123 What's Wrong with Punishment? 124 Side Effects of Punishment 127 GUIDANCE ALTERNATIVES TO PUNISHMENT 128 Time-Out 129 Learning from Consequences 130 Setting Limits 130 Redirection 135 Teaching Children to Express Their Feelings 135 Modeling Prosocial Behaviors 136 Focus on Inclusion: Children with Special Needs 140 INTERPRETING CHILDREN?S BEHAVIOR 142 A STORY TO END WITH 145 SUMMARY 146 ONLINE RESOURCES 146 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 146 TERMS TO KNOW 147 FOR FURTHER READING 147

6 The Teacher as Model 148 MODELING NONVIOLENT PROBLEM SOLVING 151 Seeking Information 152 Recognizing Alternatives 154 Considering Consequences 156 The Many Roots of Violence 157 MODELING SELF-ESTEEM 159 Modeling Virtue 159 Modeling Power 160 Modeling Significance 162 Modeling Competence 164 MODELING EQUITY 165 MODELING LEARNING, DEVELOPMENT, AND COGNITION 167 Reflective Practice and The Importance of Observation 169 Creating an Emergent Curriculum 170 A STORY TO END WITH 175 SUMMARY 175 ONLINE RESOURCES 175 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 176 TERMS TO KNOW 176 FOR FURTHER READING 176

7 Modeling Adult Relationships in Early Childhood Settings 178 WORKING WITH EACH OTHER: RELATIONSHIPS WITH OTHER EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATORS 181 Being Sensitive to Cultural Diversity 183 Recognizing Some Differences in the Way Adults Approach Problems 183 The Importance of Being Authentic 186 Handling Adult Disagreements Through Dialoguing 187 Teachers Dialoguing: An Example 188 WORKING WITH FAMILIES: PROFESSIONALS?RELATIONSHIPS WITH FAMILIES 190 Making Families Feel Part of the Program 192 Honoring Diversity 193 Focus on Inclusion: A Special Kind of Partnership 194 Recognizing That Parents? and Providers? Roles Are Different 195 Handling Conflicts with Parents 196 Facilitating Communication with Families 203 Supporting Families 204 A STORY TO END WITH 205 SUMMARY 206 ONLINE RESOURCES 206 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 207 TERMS TO KNOW 207 FOR FURTHER READING 207

Part 2

Foundations in Supporting Development and Learning 210

8 Setting Up the Physical Environment 212 SETTING UP ACTIVITY AREAS 216 Focus on Inclusion: Modifying the Environment for Special Needs 217 Physical-Care Centers 218 Infant Play Areas 220 Interest Centers 221 Gross-Motor Learning Spaces 222 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR EARLY CHILDHOOD ENVIRONMENTS 223 "Dimensions? 223 Space 225 How Much Should There Be to Do? 226 Circulation Patterns 226 Balance 228 A SAFE AND HEALTHY ENVIRONMENT 230 Ensuring Developmental Appropriateness 230 Providing Protection 232 Focus on Inclusion: Safe Environments for All 233 Assessing the Environment for Safety 234 Sanitation and Cleanliness 234 THE ENVIRONMENT AS A REFLECTION OF PROGRAM GOALS AND VALUES 236 Individuality 237 Independence and Interdependence 237 Cooperation 237 Authenticity 239 The Outdoors and Nature 240 Exploration 241 Aesthetics 242 ENVIRONMENTS FOR VARIOUS TYPES OF PROGRAMS 242 Full-Day Child Care Center 242 Half-Day Parent Co-op 243 Half-Day Head Start Preschool 243 School-Age Child Care 243 Family Child Care Home 245 Kindergarten and Primary Programs 245 A STORY TO END WITH 245 SUMMARY 246 ONLINE RESOURCES 246 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 247 TERMS TO KNOW 247 FOR FURTHER READING 247

9 Creating a Social-Emotional Environment 248 QUALITIES OF THE SO CIAL-EMOTIONAL ENVIRONMENT 250 Respect 250 WARMTH, NURTURANCE, ACCEPTANCE, PROTECTION, AND RESPONSIVENESS 253 Continuity 255 Focus on Inclusion: A Feeling of Belonging 256 SHOULD THE PROGRAM FOCUS ON THE COMMUNITY OR ON THE INDIVIDUAL? 257 CULTURAL ISSUES 258 The Child's Home Culture 261 The Dynamic Nature of Culture 265 THE EVOLUTION OF THE EARLY CHILDHOOD CULTURE 267 A STORY TO END WITH 268 SUMMARY 268 ONLINE RESOURCES 268 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 269 TERMS TO KNOW 270 FOR FURTHER READING 270

10 Routines 272 CAREGIVING AS CURRICULUM 274 Synchronous Interactions 278 Attachment 280 PHYSICAL-CARE ROUTINES 281 Feeding 281 Toileting 284 Resting 286 Grooming and Dressing 288 Focus on Inclusion: Adapting Routines for Children with Special Needs 288 OTHER ROUTINES 290 Transitions 290 Group Time 295 A STORY TO END WITH 297 SUMMARY 298 ONLINE RESOURCES 298 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 298 TERMS TO KNOW 299 FOR FURTHER READING 299

11 Developmental Tasks as the Curriculum: How to Support Children at Each Stage 300 WHAT CHILDREN NEED: A BROAD VIEW 303 DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES 306 Young Infants 306 Mobile Infants 309 Toddlers 311 Two-Year-Olds 314 Three-Year-Olds 316 Four-Year-Olds 318 Five-Year-Olds 321 School-Age Children 323 A STORY TO END WITH 325 SUMMARY 325 ONLINE RESOURCES 325 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 326 TERMS TO KNOW 326 FOR FURTHER READING 326

12 Observing, Recording, and Assessing 328 OBSERVING 334 RECORDING 336 Anecdotal Records 336 Running Record Observations 336 Incidents Reports 339 Journals 339 Photographs, Sound Recordings, and Videos 340 Checklists and Mapping 340 Time Samples 343 ASSESSING 345 Assessing the Children 346 Assessing the Program 350 A STORY TO END WITH 353 SUMMARY 354 ONLINE RESOURCES 354 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 354 TERMS TO KNOW 354 FOR FURTHER READING 355

Part 3

Planning for Learning and Development by Enhancing Children's Curiosity, Joy, and Sense of Wonder 356 13 Enhancing Children's Learning and Development Through Language and Emergent Literacy 358 DIVERSITY AND LANGUAGE 361 HOW TO FACILITATE LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 364 Facilitating Language Development in Infants and Toddlers 365 Facilitating Language Development in Two Year Olds 367 Facilitating Language Development in Three, Four, and Five Year Olds 368 Facilitating Language Development in School Age Children 374 Emergent Literacy 375 A Reading-Readiness Approach Versus an Emergent Literacy Approach 378 Emergent Literacy for Infants and Toddlers 379 Promoting the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in Three, Four, and Five Year Olds 380 Promoting the Development of Emergent Literacy Skills in School Age Children 383 A STORY TO END WITH 385 SUMMARY 386 ONLINE RESOURCES 386 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 386 TERMS TO KNOW 386 FOR FURTHER READING 387 14 Fostering Joy in Developmentally Appropriate Experiences in Math and Science 388 THE CONSTRUCTIVIST APPROACH 390 What Do Children Learn? 391 How Do Children Learn? 391 MATH 392 Infants and Toddlers and Math 392 Preschoolers and Math 394 School Age Children and Math 395 Concepts of Time and Space 395 "Real-World Math? 396 Games 397 SCIENCE 397 A Constructivist Approach Versus Formal Science Lessons 397 Physics and the Project Approach 398 Chemistry and the Project Approach 400 Two Basic Science Concepts 401 Nature Study 403 Transitions Projects 404 BASIC EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS FOR MATH AND SCIENCE LEARNING 408 A STORY TO END WITH 410 SUMMARY 411 ONLINE RESOURCES 411 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 412 TERMS TO KNOW 412 FOR FURTHER READING 412 15 Integrating Art, Music, and Social Studies into a Holistic Curriculum 414 ART 416 What Do Children Gain from Art Experiences? 418 Facilitating Art Experiences 421 MUSIC 422 Facilitating Music Experiences 422 Group Time: Singing 423 Group Time: Instruments 425 Creative Movement 425 SOCIAL STUDIES 426 Social Studies Begins with Self 426 From Self to Others 428 From Self and Others to Community 430 HOW THE EARLY CHILDHOOD PROFESSIONAL WEAVES THE FABRIC OF THE PROGRAM 430 Creating and Explaining a Holistic Curriculum 430 A STORY TO END WITH 432 SUMMARY 433 ONLINE RESOURCES 433 REFLECTION QUESTIONS 434 TERMS TO KNOW 434 FOR FURTHER READING 434

ENDNOTES E 436

GLOSSARY G-1 445

REFERENCES R-1 453

PHOTO CREDITS C-1

INDEX I

New to this Edition

Putting an emphasis on Supporting and Augmenting Learning and Development. The term Curriculum was use throughout previous editions. As an introductory text, the emphasis is more appropriately placed on each child's learning and development as well as that of the group, rather than on a curriculum which lies outside the child.

Expanding Information on Environments. Infant-Toddler Environments are in a class by themselves and this edition adds more information and details about environments for the youngest children.

Using Reflective Practice integrated throughout to help students fine tune observation skills and think about what they observe. Observing, stepping back, reflecting and figuring out what's needed is more demanding than instructing, teaching, and showing children how to do things, but the benefits are much greater.

Encouraging Problem-Solving in Children. Research by Carol Dweck and others indicates that outcomes are more positive when children are acknowledged for trying, even if they fail. Children praised for success with "good job!? and "you are really smart? tend to avoid activities that they aren?t sure they will succeed at.

Reexamining Professionalism. What does it mean to be a professional Early Childhood Educator? Is ECE a true profession? There is no clear cut answer to that question. In this edition, Stephanie Feeney and Nancy Freeman examine the various sides of this issue.


Retained Features

Voices of Experience

Points of View

Tips and Techniques

Focus on Diversity

The Theory Behind the Practice

Inclusion of children with disabilities or other special needs is highlighted in every chapter

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